In recent years, electric bikes have gained popularity. Thanks to technology which made us that far. Electric bike sales jump to 150% more in the previous year, and increasing more in the upcoming years. According to research, it is a 250$ billion market, and not going away anytime soon. That is why electric bikes are the best investments at this time. Perhaps, I’m not here to discuss the stock market.

A question arises from every individual that How do electric mountain bikes work? And how they are different from motorbikes. Generally, E-bikes have all the components of a regular cycle, but it has an auxiliary electric motor to assist you in riding. Especially on long tracks and hill-climbing, riding is enjoyable and easy. Now I will explain how electric bikes work and provide you assistance in pedaling(riding)

Additional Component of E-bikes:

As described above, an Electric mountain bike has all the components of regular bikes, but it has some additional parts which I’m going to elaborate on below:

  • E-Bikes’ Motor
  • Lithium-Ion Battery
  • Controlling Sensors
  • Race Throttle
  • LCD

E-Bikes Motor

So, the main component of electric bikes is their motor. All the other parts are there to run the motor. A motor comes in a variety of power from 150w to 1000w according to your requirement, you can buy. The more powerful motor can provide you with more assistance. Thus, it requires a more large battery to run it for a long time. Regardless of power, E-mountain bikes’ motor has three types that significantly affect riding:

  • Mid-drive Motor
  • Rear Hub 
  • Front Hub

The rear hub motor and the front hub motor are attached to the rear wheel and front wheel respectively. The rear hub and front hub motor are cheap and require more maintenance. Generally, most bike manufacturers use a mid-drive motor that has more features. It is directly connected to the drivetrain and provides you with assistance while riding. Moreover, the motor is placed in the center bottom, making the center of gravity closer to the ground.

Lithium-Ion Battery

Electric bicycles use lithium-ion batteries, which are much portable and reliable. The battery  has many sizes and variations according to compatibility with the motor. High power motors require big and high-power batteries, which can assist in long rides.

Typically, E-bike batteries range from 36V to 60V, depending upon manufacturers. Mosy of e-bikes have external batteries; however, some manufacturers install internal batteries.

External batteries are a more convenient and straightforward approach- you can unmount them from bikes to charge them inside the home.

But for internal batteries, you can’t remove batteries, so plug your charger on the bike. The internal battery system is beneficial for wet terrains.

Controlling Sensor

lithium battery

This little thing provides you most fun on e-bikes. Mountain bikes have two sensors:

  • Torque Sensor 
  • Speed Sensor

The torque sensor is attached somewhere in the drivetrain (inside the mid-drive motor); it automatically starts the motor to assist whenever you begin pedaling. When you stop pedaling, it also stops the motor. So, the sensor is the most crucial component of an e-biker to have real fun of it.

It also assists the motor to vary in output power – for example, if your pedal power is hard, the sensor will automatically signal the motor for more assistance. If you pedal slowly, the motor will provide less power. This will both save the battery and make your riding more enjoyable.

Race Throttle

A throttle on an E-bike works on the same principle as on a motorbike. It also increases and decreases motor output manually. But what is the aim of throttle when there is a sensor on E-bikes? You can fully ride an E-bike on motor output and battery power without doing any pedaling at all. It is beneficial for long rides, and functionality is making E-bikes best suitable for daily usage.


Then the last component is LCD, which displays different graphs and stats to help you riding, just like on motorbikes. This LCD shows you various information like speed, battery power, charging status, assistance mode, etc. LCDs are of small size, around 5′ inches diagonally. 

Power Assistance Mode

The great fun and functionality of E-bikes is the power assistance mode, and you can change to that way whenever you want.

There are three power assistance modes in E-bikes:

  • No – Power (Pedal Only) 
  • Electric Assist
  • Throttle Mode


Pedal-only mode allows you to ride E-biker on your pedaling power like a regular bike. Still, you can use shifters and derailleur to set a combination of gears suitable for you.

When you want to use an E-Bike like a regular bicycle, this mode is helpful, but the heavyweight of an E-bike can change your mood soon. You can also use No-power mode when you have short battery power and want to save battery power, just like in downhill riding.

Electric Assist

Electric Assist mode or pedal assist works with torque sensor signals. This mode allows you to ride a bike with pedaling and also motor power. You can also manually adjust pedal-assist bikes using the throttle, but a sensor works for this purpose. Sensors increases and decreases the motor power output according to your cadence (pedaling speed). 

Some manufacturers provide assistance modes on bikes. There can be three types of Electric assistance mode: 

  • Low Power
  • Medium Power
  • High Power 

Low power mode relies on 70% pedaling power and 30% hub-motor

Medium power mode depends on 50% pedaling power and 50% hub-motor

High power mode depends on 30% pedaling power and 70% hub-motor

The more you use high power mode, the more battery your drain. 

Throttle Mode

In this mode, you entirely rely on the motor and battery. If your E-bikes cover 40 miles on Medium power Assistance mode, you will cover 20 miles only on the throttle.

It will then work just like a motorcycle, with gears and a throttle to change speed. The most fun feature of E-bike bikes is that whenever you start pedaling in throttle mode, the torque sensor will activate pedaling assistance mode. When you increase throttle manually and stop pedaling, you will entirely rely on the hub-motor.

Pros and Cons of Electric Bikes


  • Easy to ride on uphills and long tracks
  • You can ride without battery power
  • Pedaling assistance
  • Multi-purpose usage- you can entirely rely on battery power
  • Environmental friendly
  • Low fuel consumption
  • Rechargeable batteries
  • Better for exercise fitness


  • Hard without pedaling assistance
  • Heavyweight than regular bikes
  • Costly
  • Requires a license for high power E-bikes


Do electric bikes charge as you pedal?

No! Electric bikes don’t charge themselves when you pedal. Instead, sensors activate pedaling assistance mode, which saves battery life. The less pedaling assistance you use and rely on pedaling power, the more battery power you hold. Some E-bikes have a Regenerative Braking system that charges your bike when you press the brakes. 

How long do electric bikes last?

On average, electric bikes can last up to six years. According to your riding track and distance, this time can increase or decrease, depending upon how much you ride daily. Typically, you may have to change the chain, cassette cogs, and other parts more sooner. Your E-bike motor, battery, and frame can last longer than six years with proper maintenance. After that, your battery life span will be shorter, and the motor will not work efficiently.

How fast does a 1000W electric bike go?

On a smooth road, a 1000W electric bike can reach 35 mph (56.327 km/h). However, according to USA regulations, the speed limit of E-bikes is 20mph. You can ride a 1000W electric bike with a proper license and insurance. It is illegal to use a 1000W E-bike without a permit.

Can you ride an eBike without the battery?

Yes! You can ride your e-bike without a battery, just like regular bikes. You can also switch only pedal mode to use zero battery power. But if you want to reduce the weight of the e-biker and you are not in the mood to use pedaling assistance, then you can dismount the battery. 


E-bikes work on the essential components motors, battery, sensor, and throttle. There is no rocket science in electric bikes. You can quickly get parts for E-bikes from the market. There is no rare component in it. It is a multi-purpose vehicle; you can use it for trail riding, exercise, fun long riding, and household work. 

E-bikes are heavyweight than regular bikes. You would not feel it while using pedaling assistance, but it can be challenging if you switch only to pedal mode. Still, there are more advantages to e-bikes than disadvantages. So, it is the right time to get e-bikes because these are environmentally friendly, and that trend will not diminish any time soon.